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Robotics Timeline

Landmark Images of People and Technology in Fiction , 1905-1933

1905 H. G. Wells: A Modern Utopia (novel): optimistic view of technologically-dependent society
1909 E. M. Forster: 'The Machine Stops' (story/novella). First technological dystopia, highlighting over-dependence on machines
1920 Yevgeny Zamiatin: We (novel), (US translation 1924): dystopian vision of society in which people treated like machines
1921 Karel Capek: R.U.R. [Rossum's Universal Robots] (Czech play): creation of robots (actually androids) which develop consciousness but satire on treating people like machines
1926 Hugo Gernsback founded Amazing Stories (magazine)
Fritz Lang: Metropolis (film): regimented society with people dwarfed by machines
1930 Miles J. Breuer: 'Paradise and Iron' (story): mechanical brain coordinating technological utopia turns into tyrant
Laurence Manning & Fletcher Pratt: 'City of the Living Dead' (story): machines simulate real experience for people
1931 Frankenstein (film) with Boris Karloff: nothing like novel but established mad scientist
1932 Aldous Huxley: Brave New World (novel): dystopian rejection of technological 'progress'
1933 H. G. Wells: The Shape of Things to Come (novel). Last major technologically utopian novel (film 1936)

1726-1893 | 1905-1933 | 1934-1949 | 1950-1955 | 1956-1967 | 1968-1978
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